persistent cough diagnosis - Factors of Risk in Chronic Bronchitis
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Factors of Risk in Chronic Bronchitis

Chronic bronchitis is a very common respiratory illness. Around 12 million people in the United States are diagnosed with chronic bronchitis each year. Chronic bronchitis is considered to be the most common illness among the chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Chronic bronchitis has a high incidence in smokers and people with respiratory conditions like asthma or sinusitis are also very exposed to developing chronic bronchitis in time. In some cases, patients with complicated acute bronchitis can develop chronic bronchitis too.


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Side effects The fluoroquinolones as a class are generally well tolerated. Most adverse effects are mild in severity, self-limited, and rarely result in treatment discontinuation. However, they can have serious adverse effects.

For more resources about bronchitis or especially about acute bronchitis please visit http://www.bronchitis-guide.com/acute-bronchitis.htm

8. In case you notice the symptoms given above in the children, the experts say, it is high time that you should take the child to the physician. Initially the doctor does a physical examination and refers to the child's medical history to conclude whether he is suffering with the said ailment or not.

Bronchitis causes inflammation and sometimes viral or bacterial infection of the mucous membrane, bronchial tubes and other organs and tissues involved in the process of breathing. The respiratory system has many natural defenses (nostril hairs, cilia, mucus) against external irritants (airborne viruses, dust particles, chemicals, pollen). However, constant exposure to these external agents can sometimes enable airborne viruses to penetrate the natural barriers of the respiratory tract, causing inflammation and infection. When external irritants reach inside the lungs, there is a high risk of complication (pneumonia). When the bronchial tubes become inflamed and irritated, they produce a surplus of mucus which clogs the airways and prevents the normal airflow.

Third Generation. The third-generation fluoroquinolones are separated into a third class because of their expanded activity against gram-positive organisms, particularly penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, and atypical pathogens such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Although the third-generation agents retain broad gram-negative coverage, they are less active than ciprofloxacin against Pseudomonas species.

The newer fluoroquinolones have a wider clinical use and a broader spectrum of antibacterial activity including gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Some of the newer fluoroquinolones have an important role in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and intra-abdominal infections.

11. Some times the medical practitioners recommend some asthma related medications for the child. These medications help the child release the mucus jammed inside the child's bronchi tubes. Usually with these medications an inhaler is also prescribed.

Though among children bronchitis is certainly not a chronic ailment, the parents and/or caregivers must essentially acquire the knowledge on the disease. This way they would be able to help their child better while the child suffers a bronchitis attack.

- pain in the muscles and a sore throat are next to come on the bronchitis symptom list; After all these bronchitis symptoms, then cough without mucus is the next symptom for bronchitis. As the illness, acute bronchitis, develops a cough filled with mucus will appear. Smaller children may also experience vomiting when suffering from acute bronchitis. In almost all bronchitis cases, the symptoms last about two weeks. Cough may last a little longer after all the bronchitis symptoms pass. There are also cases of acute bronchitis when the symptoms last one month, but these bronchitis cases are very rare. Because the acute bronchitis symptoms are very similar to other medical problems, it is best to consult a doctor.

Fluoroquinolones disadvantages: Tendonitis or tendon rupture Multiple drug interactions Not used in children Newer quinolones produce additional toxicities to the heart that were not found with the older agents

Acute Bronchitis 1. This type of bronchitis is the most common one for the winter season, especially among children. 2. The viruses attack the child's lining of bronchial tree that leads to infection. The swelling heightens as the child's body combats with the attack of the viruses.

i. Runny nose ii. Followed by cough iii. Slight fever iv. Experiencing pain in the back & muscle area v. Sore throat vi. Getting chills

iii. Lung Tests iv. Pulse Oximetry v. Sputum cultures 10. To cure the acute bronchitis among children the key word is taking rest. You must ensure that the child takes a good & well balanced meal. Also, drinking loads of non-caffeinated fluids is very helpful. Another key tip to cure this ailment is maintaining the in the surroundings of the child. You can do this by placing room humidifiers or keeping wet towels in several places in the house.

- the first bronchitis symptom is a runny nose, followed by discomfort that is felt in the entire body; - chills and a mild fever are also some of the first acute bronchitis symptoms;

First of all, the parents and/or caregivers can calm down as the medical findings have proved that bronchitis among children is not a chronic ailment.

Fourth Generation. The fourth-generation fluoroquinolones add significant antimicrobial activity against anaerobes while maintaining the gram-positive and gram-negative activity of the third-generation drugs. They also retain activity against Pseudomonas species comparable to that of ciprofloxacin. The fourth-generation fluoroquinolones include trovafloxacin (Trovan).

The fluoroquinolones are a family of synthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial agents with bactericidal activity. The parent of the group is nalidixic acid, discovered in 1962 by Lescher and colleagues. The first fluoroquinolones were widely used because they were the only orally administered agents available for the treatment of serious infections caused by gram-negative organisms, including Pseudomonas species.

Gastrointestinal effects. The most common adverse events experienced with fluoroquinolone administration are gastrointestinal (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal pain), which occur in 1 to 5% of patients. CNS effects. Headache, dizziness, and drowsiness have been reported with all fluoroquinolones. Insomnia was reported in 3-7% of patients with ofloxacin. Severe CNS effects, including seizures, have been reported in patients receiving trovafloxacin. Seizures may develop within 3 to 4 days of therapy but resolve with drug discontinuation. Although seizures are infrequent, fluoroquinolones should be avoided in patients with a history of convulsion, cerebral trauma, or anoxia. No seizures have been reported with levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and gemifloxacin. With the older non-fluorinated quinolones neurotoxic symptoms such as dizziness occurred in about 50% of the patients. Phototoxicity. Exposure to ultraviolet A rays from direct or indirect sunlight should be avoided during treatment and several days (5 days with sparfloxacin) after the use of the drug. The degree of phototoxic potential of fluoroquinolones is as follows: lomefloxacin > sparfloxacin > ciprofloxacin > norfloxacin = ofloxacin = levofloxacin = gatifloxacin = moxifloxacin. Musculoskeletal effects. Concern about the development of musculoskeletal effects, evident in animal studies, has led to the contraindication of fluoroquinolones for routine use in children and in women who are pregnant or lactating. Tendon damage (tendinitis and tendon rupture). Although fluoroquinolone-related tendinitis generally resolves within one week of discontinuation of therapy, spontaneous ruptures have been reported as long as nine months after cessation of fluoroquinolone use. Potential risk factors for tendinopathy include age >50 years, male gender, and concomitant use of corticosteroids. Hepatoxicity. Trovafloxacin use has been associated with rare liver damage, which prompted the withdrawal of the oral preparations from the U.S. market. However, the IV preparation is still available for treatment of infections so serious that the benefits outweigh the risks. Cardiovascular effects. The newer quinolones have been found to produce additional toxicities to the heart that were not found with the older compounds. Evidence suggests that sparfloxacin and grepafloxacin may have the most cardiotoxic potential. Hypoglycemia/Hyperglycemia. Recently, rare cases of hypoglycemia have been reported with gatifloxacin and ciprofloxacin in patients also receiving oral diabetic medications, primarily sulfonylureas. Although hypoglycemia has been reported with other fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin and moxifloxacin), the effects have been mild. Hypersensitivity. Hypersensitivity reactions occur only occasionally during quinolone therapy and are generally mild to moderate in severity, and usually resolve after treatment is stopped.

There are many symptoms for acute bronchitis, but only a few are the most common bronchitis symptoms. In children, especially, the bronchitis symptoms may be experienced in different manners. The bronchitis symptoms include:

12. To relieve the child's fever and the feeling of discomfort, analgesics are also a part of the prescription. 13. The parents and/or caregivers must note that hey should not give aspirin to the child who is suffering with bronchitis. This can lead to devastating results and other ailments like Reye's syndrome.

All of the fluoroquinolones are effective in treating urinary tract infections caused by susceptible organisms. They are the first-line treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in patients who cannot tolerate sulfonamides or TMP, who live in geographic areas with known resistance > 10% to 20% to TMP-SMX, or who have risk factors for such resistance.

Because of concern about hepatotoxicity, trovafloxacin therapy should be reserved for life- or limb-threatening infections requiring inpatient treatment (hospital or long-term care facility), and the drug should be taken for no longer than 14 days.

Bronchitis is a respiratory ailment that can happen at all ages. It scares all the parents as they do not want their children to be afflicted with the ailment. A key identification of this ailment is inflammation of a person's bronchi that is a part of our lungs.

2. This usually initiates with a continuous irritation in the bronchial tubes. 3. Among children, acute bronchitis is rather common as compared to the chronic type of the ailment. The studies prove that chronic bronchitis hits the children usually when the symptoms of acute bronchitis are not treated well and in time.

 
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So, if you want to find out more about chronic bronchitis and especially about asthmatic bronchitis please follow this link. You will find one of the best bronchitis informational websites.

3. As the swelling increases, more & more mucus is produced in the body. 4. The child is most likely to develop acute bronchitis in case the causative virus of the ailment is inhaled in the air that they breathe or it can get passed over from a person coughing.

Bronchitis is a very common illness, especially among children. Bronchitis is the inflammation of the bronchial tubes. The most common of all bronchitis symptoms is cough. The second bronchitis symptom is the production of more mucus than normal. There are several bronchitis types, but only two of them are common: acute bronchitis and chronic bronchitis. The second bronchitis type affects mostly adults.

9. To verify the ailment developing in the child, the following tests are referred to by the medical practitioners: i. Blood tests ii. X-ray of the chest

The fluoroquinolones are a relatively new group of antibiotics. Fluoroquinolones were first introduced in 1986, but they are really modified quinolones, a class of antibiotics, whose accidental discovery occurred in the early 1960.

Chronic bronchitis is very common in smokers and people with weak immune system. Inappropriate diet, lack of sleep, stress and exposure to chemicals and pollutants all contribute to the development of chronic bronchitis. Smoking facilitates the development of chronic bronchitis by sustaining the proliferation of bacteria and by slowing the normal process of healing. Smoking can cause serious, permanent damage to the respiratory system.

In the disease of bronchitis, the air passages amidst the child's lungs & nose swell up owing to the viral infection. This affects the child's bronchi. Bronchi refer to the tubes where in the air passes through in to & out of the child's lungs. Many a times, the tracheas & windpipe are also affected by this inflammation.

Urinary tract infections (norfloxacin, lomefloxacin, enoxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, trovafloxacin) Lower respiratory tract infections (lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, trovafloxacin) Skin and skin-structure infections (ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, trovafloxacin) Urethral and cervical gonococcal infections (norfloxacin, enoxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, trovafloxacin) Prostatitis (norfloxacin, ofloxacin, trovafloxacin) Acute sinusitis (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin (Avelox), trovafloxacin) Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (levofloxacin, sparfloxacin (Zagam), gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin) Community-acquired pneumonia (levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin)

Second Generation. The second-generation fluoroquinolones have increased gram-negative activity, as well as some gram-positive and atypical pathogen coverage. Compared with first-generation quinolones, these drugs have broader clinical applications in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis, sexually transmitted diseases, selected pneumonias and skin infections.

First Generation. The first-generation agents include cinoxacin and nalidixic acid, which are the oldest and least often used quinolones. These drugs had poor systemic distribution and limited activity and were used primarily for gram-negative urinary tract infections. Cinoxacin and nalidixic acid require more frequent dosing than the newer quinolones, and they are more susceptible to the development of bacterial resistance.

5. Therefore, the ailment of acute bronchitis is most oft acquired by the air the child breathes. 6. The symptoms & signs of acute bronchitis among children are:

For more resources about bronchitis or especially about acute bronchitis please visit http://www.bronchitis-guide.com/acute-bronchitis.htm About the Author:

vii. Malaise 7. In the early stage of acute bronchitis, the child suffers with dry & unproductive cough. This later on develops in to copious cough all filled with mucus. In some cases, the child vomits or gags as he/she coughs.

Fluoroquinolones advantages: Ease of administration Daily or twice daily dosing Excellent oral absorption Excellent tissue penetration Prolonged half-lives Significant entry into phagocytic cells Efficacy Overall safety

Second-generation agents include ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, lomefloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin is the most potent fluoroquinolone against P. aeruginosa. Ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin are the most widely used second-generation quinolones because of their availability in oral and intravenous formulations and their broad set of FDA-labeled indications.

Acute bronchitis is more common than the chronic one. This is when the mucous membrane is inflated. This type of bronchitis is caused either by a bacteria or by a virus. Another acute bronchitis cause is allergens or chemical agents. Smoking or working, living in places that are full in chemical can increase the risk of acute bronchitis. In children, the most common cause of bronchitis is a virus, unlike in adults when bacteria can also cause bronchitis. Bacteria can be a cause for bronchitis in children, but only for those that are over six years old. Furthermore, in children acute bronchitis is a mild illness and does not need any special treatment. In almost all cases, acute bronchitis is the result of cold or an infection of the respiratory system, mainly the upper part. Acute bronchitis can also develop in children and people that suffer from allergies or sinusitis. Enlarged tonsils can also be another condition that can be the cause of bronchitis development.

4. Bronchitis must not be taken lightly as this ailment can also lead to other severe conditions like pneumonia. Whenever your child experiences cough or cold, rather than thinking it to be a simple phase take it seriously and consider a visit to your physician as it might get dangerous for the child leading to bronchitis!

Bronchitis is of two types - acute & chronic. Acute bronchitis or the short term bronchitis is perhaps the most common among bronchial ailments. Chronic bronchitis usually appears among the adults. The ones who smoke heavily and/or are prone to inhaling the chemical substances have quite many chances to catch chronic bronchitis.

Yury Bayarski is the author of OriginalDrugs.com - website, offering patches and natural health products. More information about antibiotic medications is available on author's website.

Conditions treated with Fluoroquinolones: indications and uses The newer fluoroquinolones have a wider clinical use and a broader spectrum of antibacterial activity including gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Some of the newer fluoroquinolones have an important role in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and intra-abdominal infections. The serum elimination half-life of the fluoroquinolones range from 3 -20 hours, allowing for once or twice daily dosing.

Fluoroquinolones are approved for use only in people older than 18. They can affect the growth of bones, teeth, and cartilage in a child or fetus. The FDA has assigned fluoroquinolones to pregnancy risk category C, indicating that these drugs have the potential to cause teratogenic or embryocidal effects. Giving fluoroquinolones during pregnancy is not recommended unless the benefits justify the potential risks to the fetus. These agents are also excreted in breast milk and should be avoided during breast-feeding if at all possible.

People with chronic bronchitis need long-term medical treatment in order to completely overcome the illness. Antibiotics are the most common form of medicines prescribed in the treatment for chronic bronchitis and despite their efficiency in fighting malign bacteria responsible for causing chronic bronchitis, they also destroy internal benign bacteria that are part of the immune system. Such medical treatments with antibiotics can weaken the organism in time, making it more vulnerable to other infections. Chronic bronchitis medical treatments also include medicines for decongesting the airways clogged with mucus. Bronchodilators such as albuterol and ipratropium are inhaled medicines that eliminate excess mucus that causes obstruction of the respiratory tract and difficulty breathing. Chronic bronchitis treatments can also include steroids in order to strengthen the body defenses against bacteria and viruses.

Because of their expanded antimicrobial spectrum, third-generation fluoroquinolones are useful in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, acute sinusitis and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, which are their primary FDA-labeled indications. The third-generation fluoroquinolones include levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and sparfloxacin.

16. Also make sure that the child keeps away from all sorts of smokes like that coming from the belches or cigarettes. Chronic Bronchitis 1. When the bronchial symptoms persistently afflict the individual for three months or more, it is termed as chronic bronchitis.

Chronic bronchitis is a persistent respiratory illness and it also has a recidivating character. The symptoms of chronic bronchitis are usually not intense, but they reoccur on a regular time basis. While acute bronchitis usually clears on itself within a few days, chronic bronchitis can last for months. Chronic bronchitis is an infectious disease and needs ongoing medical treatment with antibiotics. If the medical treatment is prematurely interrupted, the illness reoccurs and can lead to complications.



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